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Short Vowels

      a          /ă/                  

      e, ea     /ĕ/

      i, y        /ĭ/

      o          /ŏ/

      u, a,     /ŭ/
     o, ou
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Suffixes

-ed             /Əd/

-ly              /lē/

-tion, -sion   /shƏn

-sion            /zhƏn/


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Cle Syllables

-ble    /bl/

-ckle    /kl/

-fle     /fl/

-gle     /gl/

-tle     /tl/

-zle     /zl/

-stle     /sl/

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Consonant Digraphs

ch, -tch,     /ch/

sh, ch,       /sh/

th             /th/

(voiced and unvoiced) 

wh           /hw/

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Ending Combinations

-ing  /ĭng/  -ang /ăng/  

-ong /ŏng/ -ung /ŭng/

-eng  /ĕng/

-ink  /ĭngk/

 -ank /ăngk/  

-onk /ŏngk/ 

-unk  /ŭngk/


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Other Vowel Patterns

         au, aw, o, augh, ough         /ô/

         oi, oy                               /oi/

         oo, ew, u, u_e, ou, ue, eu   /ōō/

         oo, u                               /ŏŏ/

         ou,  ow                            /ou/
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Consonant Blends

bl-  /bl/            cl-   /kl/          fl-    /fl/   

gl-    /gl/          pl-   /pl/         sl-   /sl/

spl- /spl/          br-   /br/       cr-   /cr/

dr-    /dr/         fr-    /fr/        gr-    /gr/

pr- /pr/            tr-    /tr/        scr- /skr/ 

shr-   /shr/       spr- /spr/       str-  /str/

thr- /thr/          sc-   /sk/       sk- /sk/


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Consonants

b                    /b/

c, k, ch, -que   /k/

d, -ed            /d/

f, ph, gh          /f/

h                    /h/

j, g, -dge         /j/

l                      /l/

m, -mb, -mn  /m/

n, kn, gn        /n/

p                    /p/

qu                /kw/

r, wr, rh          /r/

s, c, sc            /s/

t, -ed             /t/

v                    /v/

w                  /w/

x                   /ks/

y                   /y/

z, s                 /z/

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Irregular Combinations

     -alk    /ôk/

   -alt     /ôlt/

   -all     /ôl/

   -ind    /īnd/

    -ild     /īld/

   -old    /ōld/

   -ost    /ōst/

    wa     /wa/

   war    /wôr/

   wor    /wûr/

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Long Vowels


          a, a_e, ai, ay, eigh,ei, ey   /ā/

          e, ee, ea, y, e_e, ie,ei, ey  /ē/

          i, i_e, igh, y, ie, y_e           /ī/

          o, o_e, oa, ow, ou,oe        /ō/

          u, u_e, ue, eu,ew             /ū/
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Irregular Combinations

      -alk    /ôk/           -alt    /ôlt/

      -all     /ôl/             -ind   /īnd/

      -ild    /īld/             -old  /ōld/

      -ost   /ōst/           wa    /wa/

       war    /wôr/          wor    /wûr/

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R-Controlled Sounds

         ar                          /är/

        ear                         /ēr/

       er, ir, ur, or, ar, ear  (ûr/er)

         or                         /ôr/

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